"The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Negro Improvement Association Papers"
ISBN - 0520044568
"Black Nationalism and the New Negro Renaissance - Marcus Garvey"
Mark Andrew Huddle
ISBN - 1566637368
"Selected Writings and Speeches of Marcus Garvey"
ISBN - 0486437876
"The Philosophy & Opinions of Marcus Garvey: Africa for the Africans"
Amy Jacques Garvey
ISBN - 071462120X
THE PAN-AFRICAN MOVEMENT
October 5, 2015
Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. was born on August 17, 1887 in Saint Ann’s Bay, Jamaica to Marcus Garvey, Sr. and Sarah Jane Richards. After studying at Birkbeck College in London, in 1914 Garvey, and his first wife - Amy Ashwood Garvey - would organize and start the Universal Nego Improvement Association (the "UNIA") as a "social, friendly, humanitarian, charitable, educational, institutional, constructive and expansive society, and it being founded by persons desiring to do the utmost work for the general uplift of the people of African ancestry of the world. [The] members pledged themselves to dall all in their power to conserve the rights of their noble race and to respect the rights of all mankind, believing always in the Brotherhood of Man and the Fatherhood of God." Its motto being, "One God! One Aim! One Destiny!"
Following a 1917 speech at Lafayette Hall in Harlem, New York, Garvey was able to assert himself in the sole leadership of the UNIA, and become the leading voice of the African diaspore the world over, in the United States, Europe, the West Indies, and Central America as well.
Garvey founded The Negro World newspaper in 1918 to spread and express the ideas and platforms of the UNIA.
In June 1919, Garvey and the UNIA established the Black Star Line of Delaware to be the first African-owned passenger or cargo shipping fleet in the known world.
In 1922, Garvey and other executives of the Black Star Line were indicted for federal mail fraud charges; Garvey would eventually be convicted and serve three (3) years of a five (5) year sentence in federal prison before being deported to Jamaica.
On June 10, 1940, Marcus Garvey died after suffering two (2) strokes in London.
In June 1965, during a trip to Jamaica, Martin Luther King, Jr. would declare, "[Garvey] was the first man of color to lead and develop a mass movement. He was the first man on a scale and level to give millions of Negroes a sense of dignity and destiny. And make the Negro feel he was somebody."